- Effects of Haritaki
The circulatory effect of Haritaki
Terminalia Chebula: Blood circulation
Scientific experiments and studies on the circulatory effect of Haritaki.
Scientific studies concluded that Haritaki is able to protect cells from ischemic damage as a natural herbal medicine.
Terminalia chebula extract protects OGD-R induced PC12 cell death and inhibits lps induced microglia activationMolecules. 2013 Mar 19;18(3):3529-42. doi: 10.3390/molecules18033529.
Terminalia chebula, native to Southeast Asia, is a popular medicinal plant in Ayurveda. It has been previously reported to have strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory efficacy. In this study, we aimed to investigate if fruit extract from T. chebula might protect neuronal cells against ischemia and related diseases by reduction of oxidative damage and inflammation in rat pheochromocytoma cells (PC12) using in vitro oxygen-glucose deprivation followed by reoxygenation (OGD-R) ischemia and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) induced cell death. Cell survival was evaluated by a 2-(4,5-dimethylthiazol- 2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Free radical scavenging, lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide inhibition were measured by diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), thiobarbituric acid (TBA) and Griess reagent, respectively. We found that T. chebula extract: (1) increases the survival of cells subjected to OGD-R by 68%, and H2O2 by 91.4%; (2) scavenges the DPPH free radical by 96% and decreases malondialdehyde (MDA) levels from 237.0 ± 15.2% to 93.7 ± 2.2%; (3) reduces NO production and death rate of microglia cells stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). These results suggest that T. chebula extract has the potential as a natural herbal medicine, to protect the cells from ischemic damage and the possible mechanism might be the inhibition of oxidative and inflammatory processes.[Link to the scientific study]
Chebulin: Terminalia chebula Retz. fruit-derived peptide with angiotensin-I-converting enzyme inhibitory activityBiotechnol Appl Biochem. Nov-Dec 2015;62(6):746-53. doi: 10.1002/bab.1321. Epub 2015 Mar 19.
Angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE) plays an important role in blood pressure regulation. In this study, an ACE-hexapeptide inhibitor (Asp-Glu-Asn-Ser-Lys-Phe) designated as chebulin was produced from the fruit protein of Terminalia chebula Retz. by pepsin digestion, ultrafiltrated through a 3 KDa cut-off membrane, a reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, and nano-liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Chebulin was found to inhibit ACE in a noncompetitive manner, as supported by the structural model. It bounds to ACE by the hydrogen bond, hydrophobic and ionic interactions via the interactions of C-terminal Phe (Phe-6), and N-terminal residues (Asp-1 and Glu-2) with the amino acid residues on noncatalytic sites of the ACE. The results showed that chebulin derived from fruits of T. chebula Retz. is a potential ACE-peptide inhibitor that could be used as a functional food additive for the prevention of hypertension and as an alternative to ACE inhibitor drug.[Link to the scientific study]
Anti-hyperlipidemic effect of methanol bark extract of Terminalia chebula in male albino Wistar ratsPharmaceutical Biology 2015 Aug;53(8):1133-40. doi: 10.3109/13880209.2014.962058. Epub 2015 Jan 27.
Objective: Terminalia chebula Retz. (Combretaceae) is a plant used to treat cardiac disorders in the traditional Ayurveda medicine in India. The objective of this study was to assess the anti-hyperlipidemic properties of a methanol (MeOH) bark extract of T. chebula. Materials and methods: Acute toxicity studies were performed according to the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) guideline no. 423 using various doses (5, 50, 300, and 2000 mg/kg) of T. chebula bark. Anti-hyperlipidemic effect of MeOH bark extract of T. chebula at doses of 200, 400, and 600 mg/kg and fasting glucose levels after treatment with MeOH bark extract of T. chebula at doses of 200, 400, and 600 mg/kg were analyzed using commercially available kits. Results: Acute toxicity studies did not show any morbidity and mortality at various doses. The MeOH extract of T. chebula bark at doses of 200, 400, and 600 mg/kg significantly lowered serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Moreover, the extract of T. chebula and the positive control atorvastatin-treated groups of animals showed a significant increase in the serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels in diet-induced hypercholesterolemic animals. Conclusion: The overall results confirm that the bark extract of T. chebula possesses significant anti-hyperlipidemic activity.[Link to the scientific study]