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Caries-inhibiting effect of Haritaki

Terminalia Chebula: Teeth

Scientific experiments and studies on the caries-inhibiting effect of Haritaki.

These study results establish antimicrobial activity of Haritaki against oral pathogens and suggest it as an effective alternative antimicrobial agent. Haritak rinsing is repeatedly confirmed as a successful dental therapeutic.

Anti cariogenic effect of terminalia chebula

Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research 2014 Aug;8(8):ZC51-4. doi: 10.7860/JCDR/2014/9844.4765. Epub 2014 Aug 20.

The total phenol content of extract was found to be 21.33 ±1.633 (mean ± SD) and total flavonoids was found to be 23.17 ± 2.317 (mean ± SD). There was a gradual increase in pH till 45mts post-rinse when compared to pre-rinse was observed. Antimicrobial effect of Terminalia Chebula aganist microbes showed that there was a significant reduction between the pre-rinse and post-rinse samples. Conclusion: These promising findings suggested the presence of antimicrobial activity of Terminalia Chebula against oral pathogens and proven to be an effective alternate antimicrobial agent.

[Link to the scientific study]

Efficacy of Myristica fragrans and Terminalia chebula as Pulpotomy Agents in Primary Teeth: A Clinical Study

International Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry Nov-Dec 2018;11(6):505-509. doi: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1565.

Twenty participants (n = 20), each with at least two primary molars requiring pulpotomy, were selected and divided into two test groups. In 10 children Terminalia chebula gel was placed in one side and Formocresol on another side. Rest 10 children were treated with Myristica fragrans gel on one side and another side with formocresol. The treated teeth selected for clinical and radiographic evaluation were monitored periodically for 3, 6 and 12 months. Results: With the follow-up of 12 months there was no significant difference in efficacy of all three pulpotomy medicaments, i.e. Nutmeg, Myrobolan, and Formocresol, respectively was found. Conclusion: Herbal gels have a promising role in dentistry having the proper knowledge, and their effects on teeth would prove them as a successful dental therapeutic agent.

[Link to the scientific study]

Use of ethanol extracts of Terminalia chebula to prevent periodontal disease induced by dental plaque bacteria

BMC Complementary Alternative Medicine 2017 Feb 16;17(1):113. doi: 10.1186/s12906-017-1619-1.

The anti-bacterial effect of EETC was analyzed using the disc diffusion method. The anti-inflammatory effect of EETC was determined by molecular biological analysis of the DPB-mediated culture cells. Prevention of osteoclastic bone resorption by EETC was explored using osteoclast formation and pit formation assays. Results: EETC suppressed the growth of oral bacteria and reduced the induction of inflammatory cytokines and proteases, abolishing the expression of PGE2 and COX-2 and inhibiting matrix damage. By stimulating the DPB-derived lipopolysaccharides, EETC inhibited both osteoclast formation in osteoclast precursors and RANKL expression in osteoblasts, thereby contributing to the prevention of bone resorption. Conclusions: EETC may be a beneficial supplement to help prevent DPB-mediated periodontal disease.

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Antibacterial and antioxidant effect of ethanol extracts of Terminalia chebula on Streptococcus mutans

Clinical and Experimental Dental Research 2021 Jun 28. doi: 10.1002/cre2.467. Online ahead of print.

The extract of Terminalia chebula (EETC) was prepared from the Terminalia chebula fruit. Disk diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), and colony forming unit (CFU) were analyzed to observe the antibacterial activity of EETC. The glucan formation was measured using the filtrate of bacterial culture medium and sucrose. Gene expression was analyzed using RT-PCR. Cytotoxicity was analyzed using the MTT assay. The radical-scavenging activities of DPPH and ABTS were also tested to verify the antioxidant activity of EETC. Results: The antibacterial activity of the EETC was explored through a disc diffusion analysis and CFU measurement. EETC treatment decreased insoluble glucan formation and gene expression of glycosyltransferase B (gtf B), glycosyltransferase C (gtf C), glycosyltransferase D (gtf D), and fructosyltransferase (ftf). The MIC and MBC of EETC on S. mutans were not cytotoxic to gingival fibroblasts. In addition, we observed DPPH and ABTS-radical scavenging activities of EETC. Conclusions: These results indicate that the antibacterial and antioxidant effects of EETC may contribute to oral hygiene products for dental caries management.

[Link to the scientific study]

Comparison of Punica granatum, Terminalia chebula, and Vitis vinifera Seed Extracts used as Mouthrinse on Salivary Streptococcus mutans Levels in Children

Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice 2019 Aug 1;20(8):920-927.

Background: Herbal agents are used for treating different forms of diseases since decades. In the current study, the antiadhesive property of herbal extracts has been evaluated using Glycyrrhiza glabra (GG) and Terminalia chebula (TC) herbal extracts on Streptococcus mutans. Materials and methods: The plant extracts (GG and TC) were powdered in mechanical grinder. Ten gram of each plant extract in powder form was placed in porous bag or thimble. The extract was placed in a round-bottom flask and was transferred into clean preweighed universal tubes. The yield strength of the extract was calculated. The antiadherence property of the herbal extract was evaluated using glass surface adherence test. Statistical analysis: The statistical analysis was done using one-way analysis of variance followed by post hoc Tukey's test. Results: Both herbal extracts have significant antiadhesive and antimicrobial activity against S. mutans, however, high antiadherence property was seen with TC than GG. Conclusion: Both the plant extracts exhibit inhibitory activity against S. mutans. However, TC had more clinically significant results than GG, but it was found statistically insignificant.

[Link to the scientific study]

Effect of Terminalia chebula extract and chlorhexidine on salivary pH and periodontal health: 2 weeks randomized control trial

Phytotherapy Research 2014 Jul;28(7):992-8. doi: 10.1002/ptr.5075. Epub 2013 Oct 10.

A double blind, randomized, controlled study with three parallel treatment groups was done to evaluate the efficacy of a Terminalia chebula 10% mouth rinse compared with chlorhexidine 0.12% mouth rinse, applied two times daily for 2 weeks, in the treatment of dental plaque and gingivitis. Seventy-eight patients were included in the study. The efficacy variables were periodontal indices on days 0, 7 and 14 after commencement of therapy. Twenty six patients received chlorhexidine mouth rinse, twenty six Terminalia chebula mouth rinse and twenty six received saline solution. The clinical parameters were significantly reduced by both chlorhexidine and Terminalia chebula mouth rinse although no significant difference was seen between the two groups (P > 0.05). This study demonstrated that Terminalia chebula mouth rinse is effective in reducing microbial plaque, gingival inflammation and neutralizing salivary pH.

[Link to the scientific study]

An in vitro study to determine the effect of Terminalia chebula extract and its formulation on Streptococcus mutans

Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice 2014 May 1;15(3):278-82. doi: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1528.

Aim: Many weapons are available in the arsenal of a dental professional to combat dental caries, which is almost ubiquitously present. From a public health perspective, most of these weapons are far from being an ideal drug. Hence, there is a demand for better and effective antibacterial agents. This factor stimulated the process of the present study. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of ethanol extract of Terminalia chebula on Streptococcus mutans. Materials and methods: Dried ripe fruits of Terminalia chebula were procured and powdered. Physical tests were done to estimate purity of the fruit powder. Hydroethanolic and aqueous extracts were prepared according to standard procedures. Minimum inhibitory concentration of the extracts was determined by tube dilution method and confirmed by agar dilution method. The effect of the hydroethanolic extract on sucrose induced adhesion, glucan-induced aggregation and on glycolysis of Streptococcus mutans was also assessed. Preservative, gelling agent and sweetener were added in suitable quantities to the ethanol extract, and mouthrinse was formulated. Minimum inhibitory concentration of the formulation was also determined. Results: Yield was better in case of aqueous extract. The Minimum inhibitory concentration of hydroethanolic extract was determined to be 2.5%. Minimum inhibitory concentration of the aqueous extract was determined to be 10%. Hydroethanolic extract of Terminalia chebula (2.5%) inhibited sucrose induced adherence and aggregation of Streptococcus mutans in vitro. Conclusion: The mouthrinse formulated from ethanol extract of Terminalia chebula demonstrated substantial antibacterial activity and could be used as an effective anticaries agent. Clinical significance: Terminalia chebula mouthrinse can be effectively used in clinical practice as an anticaries mouthrinse with additional benefit being that it is safe and economical.

[Link to the scientific study]

The efficacy of Terminalia chebula rinse on Streptococcus mutans count in saliva and its effect on salivary pH

Oral Health & Preventive Dentistry 2010;8(1):55-8.

Purpose: The aim of the present study was to assess the effectiveness of Terminalia chebula aqueous extract rinse on salivary pH and Streptococcus mutans. Mouthrinses have been in use from time immemorial as a supplement for routine oral hygiene practice. Although a large number of mouthrinses are currently available, many of them possess certain drawbacks, which has necessitated the search for alternate agents. Materials and methods: Ten per cent of T. chebula extract was prepared. A purposive sample of 30 subjects was selected and randomly divided into extract and control groups. Baseline salivary sample was collected. The freshly prepared extract rinse and control were given to the respective groups. Distilled water was used as a negative control. Salivary samples were collected at 5 and 60 min after rinsing and were subjected to pH and microbiological analyses. An acceptability questionnaire was given to all of the participants. Statistical analysis was done using paired and unpaired t tests. Results: There was a significant reduction in the S. mutans count at 5 and 60 min after rinsing the extract. Salivary pH remained alkaline for a period of 1 h after rinsing the extract. Results of the acceptability questionnaire indicated that the mouthrinse was acceptable to 80% of the subjects. Conclusions: The results of the present study indicate that T. chebula may prove to be an effective anticaries mouthwash owing to its ability to increase salivary pH and inhibit S. mutans. This may also be a valuable public health intervention as it is economical and has multiple health benefits.

[Link to the scientific study]