- Effects of Haritaki
Antibacterial effect of Haritaki
Terminalia Chebula: Bacteria
Scientific experiments and studies on the antibacterial effect of Haritaki.
In vitro results obtained in one study support the use of Haritaki plant extract as an alternative to antibiotic therapy for subclinical mastitis in cattle. Further studies have demonstrated that a variety of bacterial species can be inhibited by Haritaki extracts.
Terminalia chebula Retz. Fruit Extracts Inhibit Bacterial Triggers of Some Autoimmune Diseases and Potentiate the Activity of TetracyclineIndian Journal of Microbiology 2018 Dec; 58(4):496-506. doi: 10.1007/s12088-018-0754-9. Epub 2018 Jul 12.
Terminalia chebula Retz. is a northern Indian plant species known for its anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties. T. chebula fruit powder was extracted with solvents of varying polarity and screened for bacterial growth inhibition by disc diffusion assay. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was quantified by both liquid dilution and disc diffusion techniques. To screen for combinatorial effects, the T. chebula fruit extracts were combined with a range of conventional antibiotics and tested against each bacteria using a liquid dilution assay. Where synergy was detected, the optimal ratios were determined using isobologram analysis. Toxicity was examined using Artemia nauplii and HDF bioassays. T. chebula fruit methanolic, aqueous and ethyl acetate extracts displayed strong antimicrobial activity against the bacterial triggers of all autoimmune inflammatory diseases except K. pneumoniae, for which only moderate inhibition was observed. Indeed, MIC values as low as 195 µg/mL were measured for the aqueous extract against a resistant strain of P. aeruginosa. Of further note, both the aqueous and ethyl acetate extracts interacted synergistically in combination with tetracycline against K. pneumoniae (S FIC 0.38 and 0.25 respectively). All extracts were nontoxic in the Artemia and HDF toxicity assays, further indicating their potential for medicinal use.
Terminalia chebula fruit methanolic, aqueous and ethyl acetate extracts displayed strong antimicrobial activity against the bacterial triggers of all autoimmune inflammatory diseases except K. pneumoniae, for which only moderate inhibition was observed. Indeed, MIC values as low as 195 µg/mL were measured for the aqueous extract against a resistant strain of P. aeruginosa. Of further note, both the aqueous and ethyl acetate extracts interacted synergistically in combination with tetracycline against K. pneumoniae (S FIC 0.38 and 0.25 respectively). All extracts were nontoxic in the Artemia and HDF toxicity assays, further indicating their potential for medicinal use.[Link to the scientific study]
In Vitro Antibacterial Evaluation of Terminalia chebula as an Alternative of Antibiotics against Bovine Subclinical MastitisAnimal Biotechnology 2019 Apr;30(2):151-158. doi: 10.1080/10495398.2018.1451752. Epub 2018 Mar 28.
The extent of subclinical mastitis in three breeds of cattle, Kankrej, Gir, and Crossbred, was performed at cattle farms in Anand town of Gujarat State, India. The prevalence of subclinical mastitis in crossbred cattle was higher compared to local breed of cattle. Causative agents identified using 16S rDNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based molecular method were Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Bacillus megaterium. In vitro antibacterial activity of ethyl acetate extract of plant Terminalia chebula (Combretaceae) was checked by agar well diffusion method against four isolated and molecularly identified microorganisms. Ethyl acetate extract shows antimicrobial activity with varying magnitudes against all identified isolates. Among the three different concentrations, 500 µg/mL conc. of extract is as effective as that of standard amoxicillin. In vitro results support the use of plant extract from T. chebula as an alternative to antibiotics therapy against bovine subclinical mastitis.[Link to the scientific study]
Bioactive compounds sourced from Terminalia spp. in bacterial malodour prevention: an effective alternative to chemical additivesInternational Jorunal Cosmetic Science 2019 Oct; 41(5):496-508. doi: 10.1111/ics.12567.
Solvent extractions prepared from of selected Indian, Australian and South African Terminalia spp. were screened by disc diffusion and liquid dilution assays against C. jeikeium, S. epidermidis, P. acnes and B. linens. The antibacterial activity was quantified by liquid dilution MIC assays. The extracts were screened for toxicity using Atremia franciscana nauplii and HDF cell viability bioassays. High-resolution time-of-flight (TOF) LC-MS and GC-MS headspace fingerprint analysis was used to detect tannin, flavonoid and terpenoid components in the extracts. Results: Bacterial growth inhibition was observed in all Terminalia extracts with the methanolic T. chebula, T. carpenteriae and T. sericea extracts the most promising bacterial growth inhibitors, yielding MIC values as low as 200 µg mL-1 . Toxicity analyses of the extracts were favourable, and we determined that the methanolic T. chebula, T. carpenteriae and T. sericea extracts were all non-toxic. Using previously detected T. ferdinandiana antimicrobials as benchmarks, LC-MS and GC-MS fingerprint analyses revealed similar compounds in the methanolic T. chebula, T. carpenteriae and T. sericea extracts. Conclusion: Through these results, we propose that Terminalia spp. extracts may be useful deodorant additives to inhibit the growth of axillary and plantar malodorous bacteria, offering a biological alternative to their chemically synthesized counterparts.[Link to the scientific study]
Terminalia chebula and Ficus racemosa principles mediated repression of novel drug target Las R - the transcriptional regulator and its controlled virulence factors produced by multiple drug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa - Biocompatible formulation against drug resistant bacteriaMicrobial Pathogenesis 2020 Nov; 148:104412. doi: 10.1016/j.micpath.2020.104412. Epub 2020 Aug 14.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa- major group of an aerobic bacteria associated with nosocomial and other life threatening infections. Diverse virulence factors produced by P. aeruginosa is due to distinct molecular cell signaling mechanism termed as quorum sensing (QS). Interfering with normal QS mechanism by active biomolecules is an effective strategy for attenuating its virulence. With this objective, the present study is undertaken to evaluate the inhibition of quorum sensing of clinical isolate of P. aeruginosa by repression of Las R-a transcriptional regulator for QS by ethanol extract of Terminalia chebula and Ficus racemosa. Las R repression by the plant extracts was measured in inhibition of various virulence factors like biofilm, pyocyanin production, total proteolytic activity, swarming and twisting motility. Fabrication of the extracted metabolites on the wound dressing and its effect on anti bacterial activity was also investigated. Compatibility of plant extracts on zebra fish development and blood cells was further studied. P. aeruginosa was isolated from the post operative patient and the isolated pure culture was identified by cultural, biochemical, molecular characteristics. Active principles of both the plants were readily extracted in ethanol and effectively repressed the expression of Las R. Both the tested plant extracts effectively repressed Las R expression which in turn affect the production of various virulence factors like biofilm formation, pyocyanin production, swarming motility, twisting motility, total proteolytic activity, cell adhesion and signaling molecule acyl honoserine lactone (AHL) production. Plant extract treatment brought about drastic reduction of all the tested virulence factors and AHL production. Extracted metabolites were fabricated on the wound dressing material adopting simple dip or immersion method reveals uniform coating, effective embedding of phytochemicals with the fibers and retained the anti bacterial activity against P. aeruginosa. Biocompatibility studies with zebra fish model shows both the tested plant extracts treatment was not exhibited any sign of toxicity on the developmental stages of Zebra fish. Hemolysis and changes in anti oxidative enzymes were not recorded in the plant extracts treated blood which demonstrated the best biocompatibility of the tested plant extracts. These results shows that the presence of potential phytochemicals in the ethanolic extract of Terminalia chebula and Ficus racemosa effectively represses the Las R followed by inhibition of quorum sensing mediated virulence factors production may be useful in the lead of anti bacterial drugs.[Link to the scientific study]
Ellagic acid derivatives from Terminalia chebula Retz. downregulate the expression of quorum sensing genes to attenuate Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 virulencePLoS One 2013;8(1):e53441. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0053441. Epub 2013 Jan 8.
Background: Burgeoning antibiotic resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa has necessitated the development of anti pathogenic agents that can quench acylhomoserine lactone (AHL) mediated QS with least risk of resistance. This study explores the anti quorum sensing potential of T. chebula Retz. and identification of probable compounds(s) showing anti QS activity and the mechanism of attenuation of P. aeruginosa PAO1 virulence factors. Methods and results: Methanol extract of T. chebula Retz. fruit showed anti QS activity using Agrobacterium tumefaciens A136. Bioactive fraction (F7), obtained by fractionation of methanol extract using Sephadex LH20, showed significant reduction (p<0.001) in QS regulated production of extracellular virulence factors in P. aeruginosa PAO1. Biofilm formation and alginate were significantly (p<0.05) reduced with enhanced (20%) susceptibility to tobramycin. Real Time PCR of F7 treated P. aeruginosa showed down regulation of autoinducer synthase (lasI and rhlI) and their cognate receptor (lasR and rhlR) genes by 89, 90, 90 and 93%, respectively. Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry also showed 90 and 64% reduction in the production of 3-oxo-C(12)HSL and C(4)HSL after treatment. Decrease in AHLs as one of the mechanisms of quorum quenching by F7 was supported by the reversal of inhibited swarming motility in F7-treated P. aeruginosa PAO1 on addition of C(4)HSL. F7 also showed antagonistic activity against 3-oxo-C(12)HSL-dependent QS in E. coli bioreporter. C. elegans fed on F7-treated P. aeruginosa showed enhanced survival with LT50 increasing from 24 to 72 h. LC-ESI-MS of F7 revealed the presence of ellagic acid derivatives responsible for anti QS activity in T. chebula extract. Conclusions: This is the first report on anti QS activity of T. chebula fruit linked to EADs which down regulate the expression of lasIR and rhlIR genes with concomitant decrease in AHLs in P. aeruginosa PAO1 causing attenuation of its virulence factors and enhanced sensitivity of its biofilm towards tobramycin.[Link to the scientific study]
Composition, Antivirulence Activity, and Active Property Distribution of the Fruit of Terminalia chebula RetzJournal of Food Science 2019 Jul; 84(7):1721-1729. doi: 10.1111/1750-3841.14655. Epub 2019 Jun 17.
The effect of ether, alcoholic and water extracts of black myrobalan (Teminalia chebula Retz) on Helicobactor pylori were examined using an agar diffusion method on Columbia Agar. Water extracts of black myrobalan showed significant antibacterial activity and had a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bacteriocidal concentration (MBC) of 125 and 150 mg/l, respectively. The extract was active after autoclaving for 30 min at 121 degrees C. Plant powder (incorporated in agar) gave higher MIC and MBC values (150 and 175 mg/l, respectively). Water extracts of the black myrobalan at a concentration of 1-2.5 mg/ml inhibited urease activity of H. pylori. The results show that black myrobalan extracts contain a heat stable agent(s) with possible therapeutic potential. Other bacterial species were also inhibited by black myrobalan water extracts.[Link to the scientific study]