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General effect of Haritaki

Terminalia Chebula: General

Scientific experiments and studies on the general effect of Haritaki.

Fruits of Terminalia chebula Retz.: A review on traditional uses, bioactive chemical constituents and pharmacological activities

Phytotherapy Research PTR 2020 Oct;34(10):2518-2533. doi: 10.1002/ptr.6702. Epub 2020 Apr 20.

Fruits of Terminalia chebula Retz. (Combretaceae) are widely used as crude drugs in various traditional medicine systems. The aim of this article is to review the available scientific information regarding the traditional uses, bioactive chemical constituents and the pharmacological activities of T. chebula. Numerous researches conducted on T. chebula have confirmed the presence of wide range of the phytochemicals such as flavonoids, tannins, phenolic acids and other bioactive compounds. T. chebula is also widely studied regarding its pharmacological activities such as antioxidant, hepatoprotective, neuroprotective, cytotoxic, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory activities among others. However, more in vivo and clinical studies for mechanism-based pharmacological evaluation should be conducted in future to provide stronger scientific evidences for their traditional uses.

[Link to the scientific study]

Therapeutic Uses of Triphala in Ayurvedic Medicine

Journal of Alternative Complementary Medicine 2017 Aug;23(8):607-614. doi: 10.1089/acm.2017.0083. Epub 2017 Jul 11.

In addition, numerous additional therapeutic uses described both in the Ayurvedic medical literature and anecdotally are being validated scientifically. In addition to laxative action, Triphala research has found the formula to be potentially effective for several clinical uses such as appetite stimulation, reduction of hyperacidity, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulating, antibacterial, antimutagenic, adaptogenic, hypoglycemic, antineoplastic, chemoprotective, and radioprotective effects, and prevention of dental caries. Polyphenols in Triphala modulate the human gut microbiome and thereby promote the growth of beneficial Bifidobacteria and Lactobacillus while inhibiting the growth of undesirable gut microbes. The bioactivity of Triphala is elicited by gut microbiota to generate a variety of anti-inflammatory compounds. Conclusions: This review summarizes recent data on pharmacological properties and clinical effects of Triphala while highlighting areas in need of additional investigation and clinical development.

[Link to the scientific study]

Therapeutic Uses of Triphala in Ayurvedic Medicine

Journal of Alternative Complementary Medicine 2017 Aug;23(8):607-614. doi: 10.1089/acm.2017.0083. Epub 2017 Jul 11.

In addition, numerous additional therapeutic uses described both in the Ayurvedic medical literature and anecdotally are being validated scientifically. In addition to laxative action, Triphala research has found the formula to be potentially effective for several clinical uses such as appetite stimulation, reduction of hyperacidity, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulating, antibacterial, antimutagenic, adaptogenic, hypoglycemic, antineoplastic, chemoprotective, and radioprotective effects, and prevention of dental caries. Polyphenols in Triphala modulate the human gut microbiome and thereby promote the growth of beneficial Bifidobacteria and Lactobacillus while inhibiting the growth of undesirable gut microbes. The bioactivity of Triphala is elicited by gut microbiota to generate a variety of anti-inflammatory compounds. Conclusions: This review summarizes recent data on pharmacological properties and clinical effects of Triphala while highlighting areas in need of additional investigation and clinical development.

[Link to the scientific study]

Terminalia chebula extract acts as a potential NF-kB inhibitor in human lymphoblastic T cells

Phytotherapy Research 2011 Jun;25(6):927-34. doi: 10.1002/ptr.3398.

Terminalia chebula (TC) is native to southern Asia to southwestern China and is used in traditional medicine for the treatment of human ailments including malignant tumors and diabetes. This plant also has antibacterial and immunomodulatory properties. Nuclear factor kappa-light chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-?B) is responsible for the expression of numerous genes involved in cell survival, proliferation, angiogenesis, inflammation, invasion and metastasis, among other processes. This study aims to assess the NF-?B inhibitory effect of TC extract in human lymphoblastic T (Jurkat) cells. The effects of TC extract were investigated using the FRET-based Gene Blazer technique in transfected Jurkat-NF-?B-RE-bla cells. The concentration of TC extract required for NF-?B inhibition was determined by a cell proliferation assay. Treatment with TC extract (50 µg/mL) inhibited NF-?B activity and protected against I?Ba degradation and strongly suppressed I?Ba phosphorylation in Jurkat-NF-?B-RE-bla cells. This treatment might be crucial for inhibiting NF-?B translocation and activation. In addition, the TC extract downregulated certain NF-?B regulated genes, including IL-8 and MCP-1, in Jurkat-NF-?B-RE-bla cells. Moreover, gallic acid was identified from the TC extract demonstrating its ability to inhibit NF-?B activity in Jurkat-NF-?B-RE-bla cells. Further studies to identify the role of gallic acid in NF-?B inhibition may uncover the crucial antiinflammatory and antitumor properties of the TC extract.

[Link to the scientific study]

Pharmacological activity of Terminalia chebula

Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi - China Journal of Chinese Materia medica 2016 Feb;41(4):619-623. doi: 10.4268/cjcmm20160412.

Terminalia chebula Retz, known as the "king" of Mongolian and Tibetan medicines, is a drug for a wide range of diseases. The main chemical components of myrobalan include triterpene acid, galloyl glucose, anthraquinonoid. The modern pharmacological studies show that myrobalan has multiple biological activities, including antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidation as well as anti-tumor. Based on domestic and foreign literatures in recent years, this paper gave a review on the advance of studies for pharmacological activity of T. chebula. and its active components, so as to provide a reference for the in-depth studies on the pharmacological action of myrobalan, and the further development and utilization of myrobalan.

[Link to the scientific study]

Analysis on composition principles of Tibetan medicine containing Terminalia chebula by data mining

Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi - China Journal of Chinese Materia medica 2017 Mar;42(6):1207-1212. doi: 10.19540/j.cnki.cjcmm.20170121.019.

This study using traditional Chinese medicine inheritance support software(TCMISS) to analyze the prescription rules of Tibetan medicine containing Terminalia chebula in the Encyclopedia of Chinese Medicine-Tibetan Medicine, Tibetan Medicine Composition Preparation of Modern Research and Clinical Application and Common Interpretation of Tibetan Medicine and so on. TCMISS(V2.5) was used to build a prescription database of Tibetan medicine containing T. chebula.The software statistical statement module, association rules and improved mutual information method and other data mining technologies were adopted to analyze the common herbs, combination rules and core combination of prescriptions containing T. chebula.Total 502 prescriptions containing T. chebula were analyzed and 14 common herbal combinations were summarized, whose ingredients mostly had the functions of clearing heat and detoxicating, promoting blood circulation and stopping pain, warming the middle-jiao and promoting the circulation of Qi. Prescriptions containing T. chebula were commonly used to treat 640 kinds of diseases, there are 22 kinds with high frequency(=12) in which the representative "Tripa" disease, antiquated febrile symptoms, food poisoning had the highest frequency.T. chebula had different therapeutic effects through different compatibility.The complex composing and medication regularities of Tibetan medicine containing T. chebula have been clarified by TCMISS. That will provide reference for the clinical application of T. chebula and the new development.

[Link to the scientific study]

The medicinal properties and phytochemistry of plants of the genus Terminalia (Combretaceae)

Inflammopharmacology 2015 Oct;23(5):203-29. doi: 10.1007/s10787-015-0246-z. Epub 2015 Jul 31.

Plants of the genus Terminalia are amongst the most widely used plants for traditional medicinal purposes worldwide. Many species are used for their antibacterial, antifungal, antiprotozoal, antiviral, antidiarrhoeal, analgesic, antimalarial, antioxidant, antiinflammatory and anticancer activities. Wound healing and cardiovascular effects have also been credited to some species. Many Terminalia species have multiple beneficial effects for multiple diseases and ailments. Indeed, the Indian species Terminalia chebula is known as the king of plants in Ayurveda due to its broad range of medicinal uses. However, apart from the reported ethnopharmacological uses of many Terminalia species, surprisingly few studies have rigorously examined this important genus for their medical properties/mechanisms and phytochemistry. This is likely due to the high tannin content common to many Terminalia species and the perception that these tannins may be responsible for much of their beneficial properties. As the complexities of tannins make them poor candidates for drug design, most interest in Terminalia species has been for their pharmacognostic and nutraceutical value and they have often been overlooked as potentials for drug discovery. However, recent reports have identified many other interesting phytochemicals and demonstrated that these may be responsible for several of the reported bioactivities of the Terminalia species used in traditional medicinal systems. The last decade has seen a large increase in the number of studies into the use of Terminalia species as therapeutic agents. Several species used in Ayurvedic medicine (Terminalia arjuna, Terminalia bellerica, Terminalia catappa, T. chebula) in particular have received much recent attention. Similarly, recent reports have also highlighted the medicinal potential of species from Africa, Australia and the Americas. The aim of this report is to summarise the recent research into the medicinal properties, phytochemistry and therapeutic mechanisms of Terminalia species and thus to highlight and direct future areas of research into the medicinal activities of this important genus.

[Link to the scientific study]


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