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Anti-inflammatory effect of Haritaki

Terminalia Chebula: Anti-inflammatory

Scientific experiments and studies on the anti-inflammatory effect of Haritaki.

The results of several studies support the traditional use of haritaki in the treatment of arthritic diseases and as a natural anti-inflammatory agent. They suggest that the free radical scavenger may be one of the mechanisms for its anti-inflammatory effect.

Anti-inflammatory, anti-lipid peroxidative, antioxidant and membrane stabilizing activities of hydroalcoholic extract of Terminalia chebula fruits

Pharmaceutical Biology 2013 Dec;51(12):1515-20. doi: 10.3109/13880209.2013.799709. Epub 2013 Sep 5.

In vivo anti-inflammatory activity of T. chebula fruit extract at different doses ranged from 50 to 500 mg/kg, p.o. was evaluated against carrageenin-induced inflammation in rats. Human erythrocyte hemolytic assay was used for in vitro anti-inflammatory activity testing with 50 to 500 µg/ml fruit extract. Antioxidant potential of test fruit extract (10 to 100 µg/ml) was evaluated using TBARS and DPPH methods. The fruit extract was standardized for total phenolic content using Folin-Ciocalteu method. Results: The standardized extract at 250 mg/kg, p.o. dose caused 69.96% reduction in carrageenin-induced rat paw edema and demonstrated 96.72% protective effect on human RBC membrane stability. Besides, Terminalia chebula fruit extract significantly reduced the in vivo formation of TBARS in carrageenin-induced rat liver with IC50 94.96 mg/kg, p.o. and also in vitro radical scavenging activities in DPPH assay method with IC50 42.14 µg/ml. The standardized extract contains phenolics 118.5 mg gallic acid equivalent/g of extract. Discussion and conclusion: These promising findings support the traditional use of T. chebula fruits in the treatment of arthritic disorders and suggest that radical quenching may be one of the mechanisms for its anti-inflammatory activity.

[Link to the scientific study]

Anti-Lipoxygenase Activity of Leaf Gall Extracts of Terminalia chebula (Gaertn.) Retz. (Combretaceae)

Pharmacognosy Research Jan-Mar 2016;8(1):78-82. doi: 10.4103/0974-8490.171103.

The present investigation demonstrated promising anti-LOX proper-ties of T. chebula leaves gall extracts. Presumably, these activities could be attributed in part to the polyphenolic features of the extract, as there was a strong correlation of higher LOX inhibiting activities with that of high total phenolic and flavonoid content in the methanolic leaf gall extracts of T. chebula. The results of this study confirm the folklore use of T. chebula leaves gall extracts as a natural anti-inflammatory agent and justify the ethnobotanical approach in the search for novel bioactive com-pounds.

[Link to the scientific study]

In vivo fluid accumulation-inhibitory, anticolonization and anti-inflammatory and in vitro biofilm-inhibitory activities of methyl gallate isolated from Terminalia chebula against fluoroquinolones resistant Vibrio cholerae

Microbial Pathogenesis 2019 Mar;128:41-46. doi: 10.1016/j.micpath.2018.12.037. Epub 2018 Dec 19.

Acute Vibrio cholerae infection triggers significant inflammatory response and immense fluid secretion in the intestine. In the present study, methyl gallate (MG) isolated from Terminalia chebula was evaluated to determine the in vivo fluid accumulation-inhibitory, anticolonization and anti-inflammatory and in vitro biofilm-inhibitory activities against multi-drug resistant (MDR) V. cholerae. Bacterial membrane-damaging and biofilm-inhibitory activities were determined by membrane perturbation and transmission electron microscopy (TEM); and microdilution assays, respectively. Fluid accumulation-inhibitory and anticolonization activities of MG (23.80-95.23 mg/kg body weight) were determined in 4-5 days old BALB/c mice with an incubation time of 18 h. The effect of MG (1, 50 and 500 mg/kg body weight) on intestinal inflammatory reaction induced by V. cholerae was studied by performing histology in Swiss albino mice. MIC and MBC of MG against the test strains were 32-64 and 64-256 µg/ml, respectively. MG showed the fluid accumulation-inhibitory activity with inhibition values of 42.86-89.08% at doses between 23.80 and 95.23 mg/kg body weight and significant anticolonization activity (p < 0.0001) against V. choleare in the suckling mouse intestine. MG (500 mg/kg body weight) significantly inhibited the inflammatory reactions induced by V. cholerae compared to the vehicle control. MG exhibited 70% minimum biofilm inhibition concentration of 64 µg/ml and bacterial membrane damaging activity at 1 × MBC. The results obtained in the present study suggest that MG has potential as an effective agent for the treatment of severe secretory and inflammatory diarrheal disease caused by MDR V. cholerae.

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Biological activities of phenolic compounds and triterpenoids from the galls of Terminalia chebula

Chemistry & Biodiversity 2013 Aug;10(8):1448-63. doi: 10.1002/cbdv.201300149.

Nine phenolic compounds, including two phenolic carboxylic acids, 1 and 2, seven hydrolyzable tannins, 3-9, eight triterpenoids, including four oleanane-type triterpene acids, 10-13, and four of their glucosides, 14-17, isolated from a MeOH extract of the gall of Terminalia chebula Retz. (myrobalan tree; Combretaceae), were evaluated for their inhibitory activities against melanogenesis in B16 melanoma cells induced by a-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (a-MSH), against the Epstein-Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA) activation induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) in Raji cells, and against TPA-induced inflammation in mice. Their 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activities and cytotoxic activities against four human cancer cell lines were also evaluated. Compounds 6-9 and 12 exhibited potent inhibitory activities against melanogenesis (39.3-66.3% melanin content) with low toxicity to the cells (74.5-105.9% cell viability) at a concentration of 10 µM. Western-blot analysis revealed that isoterchebulin (8) reduced the protein levels of MITF (=microphtalmia-associated transcription factor), tyrosinase, and TRP-1 (=tyrosine-related protein 1), mostly in a concentration-dependent manner. Eight triterpenoids, 10-17, showed potent inhibitory effects on EBV-EA induction with the IC50 values in the range of 269-363 mol ratio/32 pmol TPA, while these compounds exhibited no DPPH scavenging activities (IC50 >100 µM). On the other hand, the nine phenolic compounds, 1-9, exhibited potent radical-scavenging activities (IC50 1.4-10.9 µM) with weak inhibitory effects on EBV-EA induction (IC50 460-518 mol ratio/32 pmol TPA). The tannin 6 and seven triterpenoids, 10-16, have been shown to inhibit TPA-induced inflammation (1 µg/ear) in mice with the ID50 values in the range of 0.06-0.33 µmol/ear. Arjungenin (10) exhibited inhibitory effect on skin-tumor promotion in an in vivo two-stage mouse-skin carcinogenesis test based on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) as initiator and with TPA as promoter. Compounds 1, 2, 4, 5, 7-9, 12, and 13, against HL60 cell line, compounds 1 and 4, against AZ521 cell line, and compounds 1, 11, and 12, against SK-BR-3 cell line, showed moderate cytotoxic activities (IC50 13.9-73.2 µM).

[Link to the scientific study]